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          Source: [db:來源]  [db:作者]  2022-07-22  我要投稿   論壇   Favorite  
          初三年級(上) 【知識梳理】 I. 重點短語1. at the moment 2. used1 to 3. for a while2 4. walk away with sth. 5. leave for some place 6. sooner or later3 7. pay5 for 8. come up with an idea 9. think of 10. have a try 11. all over the world 12. be famous6 for 13. large numbers of 14. all the year round 15. no matter what 16. give up17. for example 18. by the way19. on business7 20. so far21. come true8 22. set9 off23. slow down 24. go on doing 25. wait for26. be proud11 of27. be afraid of 28. speak highly12 of29. a year and a half30. half a year 31. pick13 up 32. as14 soon as 33. keep… clean34. take care15 of 35. cut down 36. make a contribution16 to37. base17 on 38. make sure 39. take away 40. begin with41. right now42. as soon as possible43. leave a message 44. all kinds of things 45. walk around 46. fall asleep18 47. wake19 up 48. go on a trip 49. have a good time 50. take photos 51. come out 52. come on 53. have a family meeting2054. talk about55. go for a holiday56 go scuba21 diving2257. write down 58. by oneself23 59. walk along24 60. get a chance25 to do sth 61. have a wonderful time62. book a room63. have an accident27 64. be interested28 in65. use sth. to do sth.66. make a TV show 67. be amazed29 at68. take part30 in 69. feed on70. get out ofII. 重要句型1. Why don’t you do sth.? 2. make sb. Happy3. borrow31 sth. from sb. 4. forget to do sth.5. pay fro sth. 6. return32 sth. To sb.7. learn sth. from sb. 8. be famous for sth.9. No matter what… 10. be with sb.11. go on doing sth. 12. speak highly of sb.13. keep doing sth. 14. allow33 sb. To do sth.15. encourage34 sb. to do sth. 16. It is said35 that… III. 交際用語1. --- Excuse me, have you got36 …?--- Yes, I have. (Sorry, I haven’t.)2. --- Why don’t you …?--- Thanks, I will.3. --- Thanks a lot. (Thank you very much.)--- You are welcome.4. --- Have you ever37 done…?--- Yes, I have, once. (No, never.)5. --- I’ve just done…--- Really?6. ---What’s …like ?7. --- How long have you been…?--- Since38…8. --- Have you ever been to…?--- I’ve never been there. (None of us has./ Only …has. ) 9. --- Would39 you like to have a try?--- I don’t think I can…10. --- What have you done since…?11. --- How long have you been at this …?--- For…12. --- How long has she/ he worked there…?--- She’s / He’s worked there for… / all her / his life40.13. --- I’m sorry he isn’t here right now.14. --- May I help you?15. --- That’s very kind of you.16. ---Could41 we go scuba diving?17. --- Could you tell us how long we’re going42 to be away?18. --- Let’s try to find some information43 about it, OK?19. --- Could you please tell me how to search44 the Internet45?20. --- Go straight46 along here.21. ---Please go to Gate 12.22. --- Please come this way.23. --- Could you tell me what you think about Hainan Island?24. --- That sounds really cool!IV. 重要語法1. 賓語從句 2. 現在完成時3. 一般過去時與現在完成時的用法比較:【名師講解】1. Maybe/ may be (1) maybe是副詞,意思是“大概,也許”,常用作狀語。 Maybe you put it in your bag.也許你把它放在包里了。“Will he come tomorrow?”“Maybe not.” “他明天來嗎?”“也許不”。(2) may be相當于是情態動詞may與be動詞搭配一起作謂語,意思是“也許是…,可能是…”。 It may be 9:00 when they arrive.他們可能于九點到達。The man may be a lawyer47. 那人也許是律師。2. borrow/ lend/ keep/ use (1) borrow表示的是從別人那里借來東西,即我們通常所說的“借進來”。We often borrow books from our school library.我們經常從學校圖書館借書。I borrowed48 this dictionary49 from my teacher. 我從老師那兒借來了這本字典。borrow是一個瞬間完成的動作,因此不能與時間段連用。You can borrow my recorder for three days. ( 錯誤 )I have borrowed this book for only one week. ( 錯誤 ) (2) lend表示的是把自己的東西借給別人,即我們通常所說的“借出去”。Thank you for lending50 me your bike.謝謝你把自行車借給我。He often lends51 money to his brother.他經常借錢給他弟弟。 lend與borrow一樣,也是一個瞬間完成的 動作,不能與一段時間連用。 (3) keep的意思也是“借”,但一般是指借來后的保存或使用階段,是一段持續的時間,因此可以與時間段連用。You can keep my recorder for three days.我的錄音機你可以借用三天。I have kept this book for only one week.這本書我才剛借了一星期。(4) use也可以當“借用”講,但它的本意是“用,使用”。May I use your ruler? 我能借你的尺子用一下嗎?He had52 to use this public53 telephone.他不得不使用這部公用電話。3. leave/ leave for(1) leave意思是“離開,留下”。 We left Shanghai two years ago.我們兩年前離開了上海。 He left his cell54 phone in the taxi last week.他上周把手機落在出租車里了。(2) leave for意思是“前往”,表示要去的目的地。We will leave for Tibet55 next month.我們將于下月去西藏。The train is leaving for Moscow56.這趟火車即將開往莫斯科。4. since/ for (1) since用于完成時態,既能用作介詞,也能用作連詞,后常接時間點,意思是“自從”。 He has been a worker since he came57 into this city.自從他來到這個城市,他就是工人了。 I have never seen58 him since we last met in Shanghai .自從我們上次在上海見過之后,我再也沒見過他。since作連詞,還有“既然”的意思。 Since you are interested in it, just do it. 既然你對它感興趣,那就做吧。 You can have fun now since you’ve finished59 your work.既然你已經做完了功課,就開心玩會兒吧。 (2) for用于完成時,用作介詞,后常接一段時間,意思是“經過…”。 I have learned60 English for five years.我已經學了五年英語了。They have waited for you for 30 minutes.他們已經等了你三十分鐘了。for也可以用作連詞,但意思是“因為”。 They missed the flight61 for they were late.他們由于完到了而誤了航班。He fell62 ill for many reasons63.他由于多種原因病倒了。5. neither64/ either65/ both (1) neither作代詞是對兩者都進行否定,意思為“兩者都不”,作主語時謂語動詞用單數.Neither of the boys is from England.這兩個男孩都不是來自英國。I know neither of them. 他們兩個我都不認識。 neither用作形容詞,也修飾單數名詞,意思與作代詞時相同;用作連詞時,一般與nor搭配,表示 “既不…也不”。作主語時,謂語動詞也遵循就近原則。 She neither ate4 nor66 drank yesterday. 她昨天既不吃也不喝。Neither he nor we play football on Sundays. 他和我們星期天都不踢球。(2) either作代詞時,是指兩者中的任意一方,(兩者之)每一個,故作主語時謂語動詞用單數. Either of the books is new.這兩本書任何一本都是新的.She doesn’t like either of the films.這兩部電影她都不喜歡.either作形容詞, 用來修飾單數名詞,意思與作介詞時相同. Either school is near my home. (這兩所學校中的)任何一所學校都離我家很近.Either question is difficult.兩個問題(中的任何一個)都難.either作連詞時,一般與or搭配,表示兩者選其一,意思是“不是…就是”。作主語時,謂語動詞遵循就近原則。 Either he or I am right.不是他就是我是對的。Either my sister or my parents are coming to see me.不是我姐姐就是我父母要來 看我。(3) both作代詞時,指的是所涉及到的“兩者都”, 故作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。 I like both of the stories.這兩個故事我都喜歡。Both of my parents are teachers.我父母兩人都是老師。both作形容詞時,用來修飾兩者,意思與作代詞時相同.Both his arms are hurt.他的兩只胳膊都受傷了。Both these students are good at English. 這兩個學生都擅長英語。both用作連詞時,多與and搭配,表示“既…又, 不僅…而且”, 作主語時,謂語動詞仍用復數形式。 Both piano and violin are my bobbies.鋼琴和小提琴都是我的愛好。They study both history and physics67. 他們既學歷史,又學物理。 6. find/look for/ find out (1) find強調找的結果,意思是“找到”。此外還有“發現,發覺”的意思,后可接賓語從句。 Jim couldn’t find his hat.吉姆找不著帽子了。Have you found68 your lost keys? 你找到丟失的鑰匙了嗎?He found the lights were on along the street.他發現沿街的燈都亮了(2) look for的意思為“尋找”,指的是找的動作而非結果。另外,還有“盼望,期待”的意思。 She is looking for her son.她正在找她的兒子。We’ve been looking for the car since early this morning.我們從今天一大早就開始找這輛車了。I look for the coming holiday.我期待著即將來臨的假期。(3) find out含有經過觀察、研究或探索而得知的意思,后常接較抽象的事物,意思是“找出,發現,查明(真相)”等。 I can find out who took69 my money away.我能查出誰拿了我的錢。Could you find out when the plane arrives? 你能設法知道飛機何時到嗎? 7. forget to do/ forget doing (1) forget to do是指忘記去做某件事了,即該事還沒有做。 Please don’t forget to call this afternoon.今天下午不要忘了給我打電話。I forgot70 to take some small change with me.我身上忘了帶零錢了。(2) forget doing是指忘記某件已經做過的事情,即該事已經做了,但被忘記了。 He forgot telling me his address.他忘了告訴過我地址了。They forgot having been here before.他們忘了以前曾來過這兒。8. stop doing/ stop to do (1) stop doing是指停止做某事,即doing這個動作不再繼續。They stopped debating71.他們停止了辯論。(不辯論了) He had to stop driving as the traffic72 lights changed in to red. 由于交通燈變成了紅色,他不得不停車。 (2) stop to do是指停下來開始做另一件事,即停止原先的事,開始做do這個動作。 She stopped to have a rest.她停下來休息會兒。(開始休息)They stopped to talk.他們停下來開始交談。9. except73/ besides74 (1) except是指不包括后面所提人或物在內的“除了”,可以理解為“撇開…不談”,表示兩部分的不同。 Everyone is excited75 except me.除我以外的每個人都很激動。(他們激動,而我卻不激動)All the visitors76 are Japanese77 except him.除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是)(2)besides是包括后面所提人或物在內的“除了”,可以理解為“除之外…還、除之外…又”,表示兩部分的相似性。 Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him.除他以外,還有25個學生去看了電影。(他和另外25人都去了)We like biology78 besides English.除了英語外,我們還喜歡生物。(生物和英語都喜歡)besides還可用作副詞,意思是“此外;而且”,常用于句首或句尾。He is a great thinker79, and besides, he is a politician80.他是一名偉大的思想家,除此以外,他還是一位政治家。 They encouraged81 me, and they supported82 me with money, besides. 他們不僅鼓勵我,而且與我以金錢上的支持。 10. keep doing/ keep on doing (1) keep doing指的是連續地、堅持不斷地做某事,中間不間斷。 It kept blowing for a whole83 day.刮了一整天風了。The temperature84 keeps dropping.溫度持續下降。(2) keep on doing是指反復堅持做某事,但動作之間略有間隔。They have kept on writing85 to each other for many years.他們已經互相通信多年了。After drinking some water, he kept on talking.喝了一些水后,他堅持講話。11. seem/ look  seem一般著重于以客觀跡象為依據,意思是“似乎、好象、看起來…”。 The baby seems86 to be happy.嬰兒看上去似乎很高興。He seemed87 to be sorry for that.他似乎為那件事感到抱歉。seem能與to do結構連用,而look不能。 It seems to rain. 似乎要下雨了。They seemed to have finished their work.他們似乎已經完成了工作。在it作形式主語的句型中只能用seem。 It seems that he is quite busy now.他現在看起來很忙。It seems to us that there is nothing serious88.在我看來沒什么大不了的。 (2) look用作“看起來;好像”時,常從物體的外觀或樣貌上來判斷,是以視覺所接受的印象為依據的。 The room looks clean.這間房看起來很干凈。The girl looks like her mother.那女孩看起來向她的媽媽。12. such89/ so (1)such常用作形容詞,用來修飾名詞。 Don’t be such a fool90.別這么傻。 He is such a clever boy.他是如此聰明的一個男孩。 so是副詞,用來修飾形容詞或副詞。 He is so kind! 他真好心!Why did91 you come so late? 你為何回來得如此晚?當名詞前有many, much, few92, little等表示多、少時,應該用so。 He has so many friends.他有如此多的朋友。 Only so little time is left! 才剩這么一點兒時間!13. either/ too/ also (1)either用作“也”時是副詞,常用于否定句句尾。She is not a Japanese, I’m not, either.她不是日本人,我也不是。My sister doesn’t like this song, either.我妹妹也不喜歡這首歌。(2)too常用于肯定句或疑問句尾,表示“也”。He likes China, too.他也喜歡中國。Are you in Grade 3, too? 你也在三年級嗎?(3)also也常用于肯定句或疑問句,但一般位于句中。We are also students.我們也是學生。He also went there on foot.他也是走著去的。Did you also want to have a look? 你也想看看嗎? 14. if/ whether93 在下列情況下只能用whether而非if: (1)與or not連用時,只能用whether.We want to know whether you are ill or not. 我們想知道你是否生病了。Please tell me whether or not you have finished your work.請告訴我們你是否完成了工作。(2)后接動詞不定式時,只能用whether.Adam didn’t know whether to go or stay.亞當不知道是走還是留。He hasn’t decided94 whether to have dinner with me.他還沒決定是否和我共進晚 餐。(3)所引導的賓語從句放在主句之前時,只能用whether.Whether it will rain or snow, we don’t mind95. 我們不在乎將要刮風還是下雨。Whether I won26 or lost, she didn’t want to know.我是贏是輸她不想知道。(4)引導主語從句或表語從句時,一般用whether.The most important96 was97 whether they had gone.最重要的是他們是不是已經 走了。Whether he will go with me is a secret98.他是否會和我一起去還是個秘密。if能引導條件狀語從句,表示“如果,假如”,而whether沒有此用法。We’ll have a football match if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.如果明天不下雨,我們 要進行足球賽。I’ll tell him if I sees him.我看見他就告訴他。If you’re in danger99, please call 110.如果你遇到危險,請撥打110。15. cost100/ spend/ pay/ take (1) cost一般用某物來做主語,表示“(某物)值…、花費…”,既能指花費時間也能指金錢。The new bike costs101 me 300 yuan.這輛新自行車花了我三百元。It will cost you a whole to read through this book.通讀這本書將會花費你整整一周時間。cost 還可以用作名詞,表示“成本、費用、價格、代價”等。What’s the cost of this TV set? 這臺電視機的成本是多少錢?They succeeded102 at the cost of hard work.他們辛苦地工作換來的成功。(2) spend一般用某人來作主語,表示“(某人)花費…,付出…”,也能指時間或金錢,指時間時常與 in搭配,指金錢時常與on或for搭配。 We spent two days in repairing103 this machine104.我們花了兩天時間修理這臺機器。 Mr. Lee spends $20 on books every month.李先生每月花二十美元在書上。(3) pay用作動詞時,一般也以某人作主語,但一般指花錢、付款等,很少用來指花費時間。常與for搭配使用。They paid105 70 yuan for the tickets.他們花了七十元買票。He was too poor to pay for his schooling106.他窮得交不起學費。pay還可以用作名詞,意思為“薪水、工資”等。It’s hard for me to live with such low10 pay.我很難靠這么低的薪水生活下去。(4)take也指“花費(時間、金錢)”,但通常用某事、某物做主語,或用形式主語it.How long will the meeting take? 會議要開多久?It took me several107 hours to get there. 我花了幾個小時才到那兒。16. bad/ badly108 這兩個詞的意思含有“壞、糟、嚴重”等意思,且它們有共同的比較級worse和最高級worst 。 (1) bad是一個形容詞,意思是“壞的,糟糕的,差的,嚴重的”。 I don’t think he is a bad person109.我并不認為他是一個壞人。I had a bad headache.我的頭疼得很厲害。(2)badly是一個副詞,意思是“不好地,差”,也可以表示程度,意為“嚴重地,非常,極度”。 We need help badly.我們急需幫助。His arm was badly hurt.他的胳膊嚴重受傷了。17. interested/ interesting (1) interested是指“對…產生興趣的,對…感興趣的”,一般用人做主語,后常用介詞in. He was interested in biology before.他以前對生物感興趣。 I’m not interested in art.我對藝術不感興趣。(2)interesting的意思是“有趣的”,指能夠給人帶來興趣的某人或某事物。 He is an interesting old man.他是個有趣的老頭。The interesting story attracted110 me. 這個有趣的故事吸引了我。18. dead111/ die/ death112/ dying113 (1) dead是形容詞,意思為“死了的、無生命的”,表示狀態,可以與一段時間連用。 The tree has been dead for ten years.這棵樹死了有十年了。The rabbits are all dead. 這些兔子都是死的。(2) die是動詞,意思為“死、死亡”,是一個瞬間動詞,不能與一段時間連用。 My grandpa died114 two years ago.我爺爺兩年前去世了。The old man died of cancer115.老人死于癌癥。death是名詞,意思為“死亡、去世”等。 The memorial116 hall was built117 one year after his death.他死后一年,紀念館建成了。 His death is a great loss118 to us.他的死是我們的巨大損失。 (4) dying 是die的現在分詞,用作形容詞,意思是“垂死的、即將死去的”。 The doctors have saved119 the dying man.醫生們救活了那個垂死的人。The poor dog had no food, it was dying.可憐的狗沒有食物,快要餓死了!究键c掃描】中考考點在本單元主要集中在:1. 賓語從句的時態和語序;2. 一般過去時和過去完成時的用法區別;3. 本單元學過的詞匯、短語和句型;4. 本單元學習的日常交際用語?荚囆问娇梢允菃雾椞羁、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子!局锌挤独1. (2004年北京市海淀區中考試題)---Do you know ________________?---Only ten months old.A. when does Tiger Woods start golfing120B. when did Tiger Woods start golfingC. when Tiger Woods starts golfingD. when Tiger Woods started golfing【解析】答案:D。該題考查的是賓語從句的時態和語序。這個賓語從句的時態應用一般過去時,應為這里說的是過去的事情。語序應用陳述句的語序,所以正確答案是: when Tiger Woods started golfing。2. (2004年北京市海淀區中考試題)I’m interested in animals, so I _____________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital.A. pay B. get C. take D. spend【解析】答案:D。該題考查的是pay, get, take和spend這四個動詞的用法區別。只有動詞spend可以用在sb. spends time doing sth. 這個句型里,所以正確答案影視spend。3. (2004年天津市中考試題) Could I ________ your telephone? I have something important to tell my parents. A. keep B. borrow C. use D. lend【解析】答案:C。該題考查的是keep, borrow, use和lend四個動詞的用法區別。keep的真正含義是“保留”,borrow的含義是“借入”,lend的含義是“借出”,只有use的含義是“使用”。在這個句子里實際上是“使用”的意思,所以應選use。4. (2004年鄂州市中考試題) ---Hi, Ann. Where’s your brother? I need his help. ---He left home two weeks ago and ________away ever since. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been【解析】答案:C。該題考查的是動詞時態的用法區別。一般現在時表示經常發生的動作或現在所處的狀態;一般過去時表示過去的動作或過去所處的狀態;過去完成時表示過去的動作或過去的時間以前發生的事情;現在完成時表示動作或狀態從過去某一時間開始一直延續到現在或剛剛結束。這里只能用現在完成時。
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